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Egg

egg-desibantu
Quick Facts
  • Eggs are laid by females of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish.
  • Bird and reptile eggs consist of a protective eggshell, albumen (egg white), and vitellus (egg yolk), contained within various thin membranes.
  • Popular choices for egg consumption are chicken, duck, quail, roe, and caviar, but the egg most often consumed by humans is the chicken egg, by a wide margin.
  • Most bird eggs are laid between the hours of 7 AM – 11 AM.
  • Egg yolks and whole eggs store significant amounts of protein and choline and are widely used in cookery.
  • Due to their protein content, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) categorizes eggs as Meats within the Food Guide Pyramid..
  • There are 7 to 17 thousand tiny pores on the shell surface, a greater number at the large end. As the egg ages, these tiny holes permit moisture and carbon dioxide to move out and air to move in to form the air cell.
  • The egg can also absorb refrigerator odors through the pores, so always refrigerate eggs in their cartons.
  • Cooked eggs are easier to digest, as well as having a lower risk of salmonellosis.
  • Eggs contain all the essential protein, minerals and vitamins, except Vitamin C. But egg yolks are one of few foods that naturally contain Vitamin D. Eggs also contain choline, which is necessary for healthy cell membranes in the body. Choline stimulates brain development and function and helps preserving memory. Eggs also are good for your eyes because they contain lutein which helps prevents age-related cataracts and muscular degeneration. In fact, eggs contain more lutein than spinach and other green vegetables.
  • A whole egg is about 3 tablespoons worth of liquid, the egg yolk measures about 1 tablespoon of liquid. Older hens tend to lay bigger eggs but double-yolked eggs are produced by younger hens whose egg production cycles are not yet synchronized. There are about 70 calories in an uncooked egg and 77 calories in a cooked egg.
  • As of references in year 2012, China produces the most eggs, at about 160 billion per year. In the US, about 75 billion eggs are produced a year, accounts to 10% of the world supply.
  • On an average, a hen can lay about 250 eggs per year.
  • Despite the nutritional value of eggs, there are some potential health issues arising from egg quality, storage, and individual allergies.

Chicken egg whole, hard-boiled

    • Carbohydrates : 1.12 g
    • Fat : 10.6 g
    • Protein : 12.6 g
    • Tryptophan : 0.153 g
    • Threonine : 0.604 g
    • Isoleucine : 0.686 g
    • Leucine : 1.075 g
    • Lysine : 0.904 g
    • Methionine : 0.392 g
    • Cystine : 0.292 g
    • Phenylalanine : 0.668 g
    • Tyrosine : 0.513 g
    • Valine : 0.767 g
    • Arginine : 0.755 g
    • Histidine : 0.298 g
    • Alanine : 0.700 g
    • Aspartic acid : 1.264 g
    • Glutamic acid : 1.644 g
    • Glycine : 0.423 g
    • Proline : 0.501 g
    • Serine : 0.936 g
    • Water : 75 g
    • Vitamin A equiv. 149 μg (19%)
    • Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.066 mg (6%)
    • Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.5 mg (42%)
    • Pantothenic acid (B5) 1.4 mg (28%)
    • Folate (vit. B9) 44 μg (11%)
    • Vitamin B12 1.11 μg (46%)
    • Choline 294 mg (60%)
    • Vitamin D 87 IU (15%)
    • Vitamin E 1.03 mg (7%)
    • Calcium 50 mg (5%)
    • Iron 1.2 mg (9%)
    • Magnesium 10 mg (3%)
    • Phosphorus 172 mg (25%)
    • Potassium 126 mg (3%)
    • Zinc 1.0 mg (11%)
  • Cholesterol :424 mg
Anatomy of an egg

Anatomy of an egg

Schematic of a chicken egg:

1. Eggshell
2. Outer membrane
3. Inner membrane
4. Chalaza
5. Exterior albumen
6. Middle albumen
7. Vitelline membrane
8. Nucleus of pander
9. Germinal disc (nucleus)
10. Yellow yolk
11. White yolk
12. Internal albumen
13. Chalaza
14. Air cell
15. Cuticula


Source:
1. USDA Nutrient Database
2. Wikipedia

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