Indian National Flag (భారత జాతీయ పతాకం):
- The Indian national flag was designed in 1916 by Pingali Venkayya from Machilipatnam.The tricolor flag designed by him, with a chakra in the center was adopted by the Congress committee in 1931 at Karachi.
- The Indian flag was designed as a symbol of freedom.
- The flag is a horizontal tricolor in equal proportion of deep saffron on the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom.
- Therefore it is also called as “Tiranga” (or “Tricolor”).
- The ratio of the width to the length of the flag is two is to three.
- In the centre of the white band, there is a wheel in navy blue to indicate the Dharma Chakra, the wheel of law in the Sarnath Lion Capital. Its diameter approximates the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes.
Meaning behind the Colors of the Indian Flag:
- The Saffron Color: The saffron stands for courage, sacrifice and the spirit of renunciation.
- The White Color: The white stands, for purity and truth.
- The Green Color: The green stands, for faith and fertility.
- The Chakra: The spoked Ashoka Chakra in the center of the flag replaced the Gandhian spinning wheel to add historical “depth” and separate the national flag from that of the Indian National Congress. This Dharma Chakra depicted the “wheel of the law” in the Sarnath Lion Capital made by the 3rd-century BC Mauryan Emperor Ashoka. The chakra intends to show that there is life in movement and death in stagnation.
Birth of the Indian Flag:
The design of the National Flag of India was adopted by India’s constituent assembly on 22nd July, 1947. It’s use and display are regulated by a code.
- On 26th January 2002, the flag code was changed. After 52 years, the citizens of India are free to fly the Indian flag over their homes, offices and factories on any day. Now Indians can proudly display the national flag any where and any time.
- There are some rules and regulations upon how to fly the flag, based on the 26 January 2002 legislation.
Respect for the flag:
Indian law says that the flag must at all times be treated with “dignity, loyalty and respect”. The “Flag Code of India – 2002”, which superseded “The Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950”, governs the display and usage of the flag. Official regulation states that the flag must never touch the ground or water, be used as a tablecloth or draped in front of a platform, cover a statue, plaque, cornerstone etc. Until 2005, the flag could not be used in clothing, uniform or costume. On 2005-07-05, the Government of India amended the code, allowing use of the flag as clothing and uniform. It however cannot be used as clothing below the waist or as undergarments. It is also prohibited to embroider the national flag and other symbols onto pillowcases or neckerchiefs.
The flag may not be intentionally placed upside down, dipped in anything, or hold any objects other than flower petals before unfurling. No sort of lettering may be inscribed on the flag.
History of Indian Flag:
1904: Indian flag history started from the 20th century to pre-independence period. Irish disciple of Swami Vivekananda made the first national flag in 1904. Her name was sister Nivedita and then after the flag came to be known as sister Nivedita’s flag. This flag was designed using colors yellow and red. Yellow color signified symbol of success and red color shows freedom struggle. Bengali word “Bonde Matoram” was written on it. The flag contained figure of ‘Vajra’, weapon for god ‘Indra’ and a white lotus in the center. The Vajra signified strength and lotus shows depicts purity.
1906: In 1906, another Indian flag was designed after Sister Nivedita’s flag. It was designed using three colors: blue, yellow and red. This flag blue strip had 8 stars of slightly various shapes, red strip had 2 symbols. The first one symbol was the sun and second symbol was the star. The yellow strip color had ‘Vande Mataram’ written on Devnagiri script.
Again in 1906 only another version of this flag came into existence that contained orange, yellow and green colors. This flag was known as ‘Lotus flag’ or Calcutta flag’. This flag signified the Indian unity and capacity of freedom struggle.
1907: In 22 August 1907, Shyamji Krishna Varma, Madam Bhikaji Cama and Veer Savarkar had designed a new flag. This flag was called as Madam Bhikaji Cama flag. This flag was similar to flag in 1906 with the exemption colors and the flower closest to hoist. In 1907, the flag was hosted in foreign country Germany first time. Thus this flag was also referred as Berlin Committee flag. This flag was made up of three colors green followed by golden saffron and the red color at the bottom. It had “Vande Mataram” written on it.
1916: In 1916, the new flag was designed by Lokamanya Tilak and Dr. Annie Besant’s. Congress session hosted this flag in Calcutta. Colors used for this flag are white, green, blue and red. Each color was used in striped manner. The five red and four green strips represents Singh and Nair, the white strip color signified seven stars of Saptarishi.
1917: In 1917, the new flag was adopted by Bal Ganga Dhar Tilak. Bal Ganga Dhar Tilak was the leader of the Home Rule League. This flag had union jack at top, near hoist. At that time the status of Dominion was being demanded for India. This flag signified seven stars of “Saptashi”. This flag contains four blue and five red strips. It had a semi-circular moonand a star on the top fly end. This flag did not become popular in masses.
1921: In 1921, Mahatma Gandhi designed the new flag containing three colors: white, green and red. White color on the top of this flag signified truth. In the middle of this flag green color shows the earth and Indian agriculture. Red color on the bottom of this flag signified spirit and freedom struggle. This flag pattern was based on the flag of Ireland.
1931: In 1931, Pingali Venkayya was designed a new flag. It also has three colors white, green and saffron. Saffron color was at the top of this flag, white in the middle and the green at the bottom. The saffron color signified the strength. The white color shows truth and the green color signified the earth and the Indian agriculture. In the center of this flag there was ‘Charkha’ in blue color.
1947: In 1947, the flag with three colors was accepted by Indian and the whole country. A National flag of India was adopted by the three colors in 1947. While a result, the flag in 1931 was adopted asIndian flag but ‘Charkha’ in the center was replaced by ‘Wheel’ (Chakra). In this way our National flag came into being.